Ecol Soc 10:19, Holl KD, Aide TM (2011) When and where to actively restore ecosystems? Results of the case study showed that before the establishment of Community Forestry, mangroves were cleared for urban expansion and agriculture. This review will assess studies that have undertaken biodiversity surveys of restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests by comparing them against suitable mature reference mangrove forests within the same region, or surveys prior to degradation of the forest. J Plant Ecol 3:165–174, Macintosh DJ, Ashton EC, Havanon S (2002) Mangrove rehabilitation and intertidal biodiversity: a study in the Ranong mangrove ecosystem, Thailand. Demopoulos AWJ, Cormier N, Ewel KC, Fry B: Use of multiple chemical tracers to define habitat use of Indo-Pacific mangrove crab, Scylla serrata (Decapoda: Portunidae). 2nd edition. Relevant outcome: Empirical data contained for species biodiversity, abundance or biomass, or a difference in ecosystem service measure in both the intervention and the comparator. UNEP/Earthprint. Pac Sci 2008, 62: 1–19. Threats to mangrove forests vary regionally, but in many countries land conversion is causing the biggest losses . Nature 2012, 486: 59–67. S Afr J Bot 67:383–389, Kaly UL, Jones GP (1998) Mangrove restoration: a potential tool for coastal management in tropical developing countries. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Bioscience 51:807–815, Vilardy SP, Gonzalez JA, Martin-Lopez B, Montes C (2011) Relationships between hydrological regime and ecosystem services supply in a Caribbean coastal wetland: a social-ecological approach. Do mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation activities return biodiversity to pre-impact levels? In: Barret GW, Rosenberg R (eds) Stress and natural ecosystems. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000. WWF South Pacific Office, Suva, p 50, Elster C (2000) Reasons for reforestation success and failure with three mangrove species in Colombia. Mangrove forests protect households, sea Studies will be classified as 'high’, 'medium’ or 'low’ quality based these criteria to broadly define susceptibility to bias. An evaluation of mangrove restoration projects in eastern Australia. J Appl Ecol 2008, 45: 854–862. 10.2307/1937691, Bacon PR: Use of wetlands for tourism in the insular Caribbean. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:157–167, Bohórquez-Rueda C, Prada-Triana MC (1988) Transplante de plántulas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) en el Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario, Colombia. In: Günter S, Weber M, Stimm B, Mosandl R (eds) Silviculture in the tropics. Landsc Ecol Eng 7:241–250, Ren H, Guo Q, Liu H, Li J, Zhang Q, Xu H, Xu F (2014) Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science Policy Working Group: Society for ecological restoration international science & policy working group. Nat Geosci 4:293–297, Ellison AM (2000) Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Citations will be stored in EndNote (version X5, http://www.endnote.com) and EPPI-Reviewer (version 4, http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/er4) at each stage. 10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00074-X, Islam MS, Haque M: The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation and management. Scylla serrata), so the biomass of these few species give a better indication of food provision than the overall crab species richness within the forest. 10.1016/j.aquabot.2008.03.010, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK: Mangrove forests: One of the World’s threatened major tropical environments. Andradi-Brown, D.A., Howe, C., Mace, G.M. Restor Ecol. Environ Manage 2005, 36: 535–550. Restor Ecol 8:247–259, Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO, Menezes GV, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Poffo IRF, Eysink GGJ (2005) Recuperação de manguezais: um estudo de caso na Baixada Santista de São Paulo, Brasil. Cookies policy. 10.1073/pnas.0810440106, Mazda Y, Magi M, Kogo M, Hong PN: Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the tong king delta, Vietnam. Not affiliated A previous study found rehabilitated mangrove forests had higher crab abundances than natural mangroves , but that the crab community was more similar to natural forests than the previous bare mud flat. The area extension of mangrove sites undergoing restoration or just afforestation ranged from few square meters to several thousand hectares. 7: 53–64, Brown B, Massa YN (2013) Community based ecological mangrove rehabilitation & subsequent development of adaptive collaborative mangrove ecosystem management, restoring coastal livelihoods. The study estimates planting, capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove … 10.1038/nature11148, Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nystrom M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, Norberg J: Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. equals the effect size, W Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR: Introduction to meta-analysis. REST Version 3. Forest Ecol Manag 261:1558–1563, Jayatissa LP, Kodikara KAS, Dissanayaka NP, Satyanarayana B (2016) Post-Tsunami assessment of coastal vegetation, with the view to protect coastal areas from ocean surges in Sri Lanka. The project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system. ZSL's team of mangrove researchers have published the following manuals: 1. This trainer’s manual is viewed as a vital support to the ERDB in its conduct of research and development programs including projects of DENR focusing on rehabilitation and reforestation of degraded mangroves and beach forests. We analyzed current best practices and recommendations used in the implementation of mangrove rehabilitation and restoration (R/R) projects in the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) and the Indo-West Pacific biogeographic regions during the last 20 years. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2005, 63: 605–618. 10.1017/S0376892911000373. Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR: The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. To understand how mangrove forest restoration influences water quality management Organizer explaining a map of mangrove forest … The number of mangrove rehabilitation programmes world-wide is extensive. Additionally, the Google Scholar data- In: Young HE (ed) Symposium on primary productivity and mineral cycling in natural ecosystems. Ocean & Coastal Management 2013, 83: 5–14. Biometrics 1977, 33: 159–174. World Aquaculture Society, Lewis RR (2000) Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration. The search string was developed using ISI Web of Knowledge and trialled against a test library. Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR: A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO 2. This project seeks to understand the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation for biodiversity conservation and associated provisioning ecosystem services through a systematic review comparing restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests with reference mature mangrove systems globally across a range of taxonomic groups. Proboscis monkeys are endemic to the island of Borneo and mangroves forests provide key habitat. The template also provides space for any other relevant factors identified while reading an article at full text to be included. Ecol Econ 1999, 29: 235–252. Ecology 1999, 80: 1150–1156. In: Chan HT, Ong JE (eds) Guidelines for the rehabilitation of mangroves and other coastal forests damaged by Tsunamis and other natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific Region, ISME-ITTO, pp 9–14, Siikamäki J, Sanchirico JN, Jardine S, McLaughlin D, Morris D (2013) Blue carbon: coastal ecosystems, their carbon storage, and potential for reducing emissions. Many mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects, often implemented at a considerable cost, unfortunately overlook this fundamental … This training aims to increase participant capacity to engage in mangrove rehabilitation. Technical paper no. forest owners, local communities, concessionaires, and forest and other authorities in charge of land use) should be engaged from the start to, for Ocean Coast Manag 110:38–45, Field CD (1995) Impact of expected climate change on mangroves. Mangrove restoration and rehabilitation, however, could potentially be more effective than restoration or rehabilitation in other ecosystems, as natural mangrove forests have low tree species richness compared to other tropical forests and are often dominated by a single species or even exist as single species stands . Environ Evid 2, 20 (2013). Coastal land is often of high value creating large pressures for conversion for aquaculture and agriculture or infrastructure and development projects for facilities such as harbours and industries such as tourism [8, 9]. Ecol Res 23:401–407, Ren H, Lu HF, Shen WJ, Huang C, Guo QF, Li ZA, Jian SG (2009), Rey JR, Carlson DB, Brockmeyer RE Jr (2012) Coastal wetland management in Florida: environmental concerns and human health. However, the success of restoration efforts in the region are notoriously low, despite the tens of millions of dollars spent. The first 50 Word and PDF document hits will be examined and references contained within articles viewed at full text will be searched. volume 2, Article number: 20 (2013) Final Report SNIB-CONABIO, Proyect HH025, Mexico, Lovelock CE, Adame MF, Bennion V, Hayes M, O’Mara J, Reef R, Santini NS (2014) Contemporary rates of carbon sequestration through vertical accretion of sediments in mangrove forests and saltmarshes of South East Queensland, Australia. Wetl Ecol Manag 16:345–358, Primavera JH, Rollon RN, Samson MS (2011) The pressing challenges of mangrove rehabilitation: pond reversion and coastal protection. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:154–159, Ghosh A, Schmidt S, Fickert T, Nüsser M (2015) The Indian Sundarban mangrove forests: history, utilization, conservation strategies and local perception. Field guide to Philippine mangroves (3.43 MB) 4. Table 1 gives a summary of the countries that have undertaken some form of mangrove rehabilitation, the main mangrove species utilized, the goals of the projects, the extent of the mangrove area rehabilitated and the area of mangrove naturally occurring. Alternatively the reference could be the restored or rehabilitated mangrove surveyed prior to first impact. Besides this mangroves also provide construction timber for houses and fish traps and firewood. Ecol Eng 2000, 15: 191–198. The ecosystem restoration … Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, pp 201–216, Stevenson NJ, Lewis RR, Burbridge PR (1999) Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Wetl Ecol Manag 22:587–604, Darkwa S, Smardon R (2010) Ecosystem restoration: evaluating local knowledge and management systems of fishermen in Fosu Lagoon, Ghana. The template spreadsheet for data extraction (Additional file 3) was developed during trial data extraction of studies identified during search term testing and provides a clear framework for extraction ensuring repeatability and efficiency. Mangrove forests are located in the tropical and subtropical areas at the boundary between the aquatic (normally marine or brackish) and the terrestrial environment . Florida Sea Grant College, Gainesville, Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF (2000) The “Antropocene”. They then convert this into biomass made of complex carbon comp… Now, with approximately 400,000 hectares of disused shrimp ponds available, the CBEMR method offers a successful process of mangrove rehabilitation due to extensive pre-project assessments of local ecology, hydrology and communities empowering them to be stewards of their environment, and enabling them to regain their livelihoods. Lewis RR, Gilmore RG (2007) Important considerations to achieve successful mangrove forest restoration with optimum fish habitat. Primavera JH, Yap WG, Savaris JP, Loma RA, Moscoso ADE, Coching JD, Montilijao CL, Poignan RP, Tayo ID (2014) Manual on mangrove reversion of abandoned and illegal brackishwater fishponds – Mangrove Manual Series 2. Environ Sci Pol 66:160–169, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Bosire J, Koedam N (2001) Restoration and management of mangrove systems – a lesson for and from the East African region. 10.1038/ngeo1123, Carlton JM: Land-building and stabilization by mangroves. Front Ecol Environ 2003, 1: 488–494. If comparators are specified then a reference mature mangrove forest for comparison or data on original mangrove forest structure pre-impact and post restoration. Restoration and rehabilitation* of existing or former mangrove forest areas is extremely important today. Nat Clim Chang 2:764, Peng YG, Xu ZC, Liu MC (2012) Introduction and ecological effects of an exotic mangrove species, Primavera JH (2000) Development and conservation of Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. The study covered mangrove rehabilitation efforts in the Philippines; Myanmar, Japan, China and India (Figure 1). An in-depth study in Sri Lanka. Leung JYS, Tam NFY (2013) Influence of plantation of an exotic mangrove species, Lewis RR 1982 Mangrove forests. Terms and Conditions, Non-English language articles without an English title and abstract will be excluded from the review. Oficina regional de ciencia y tecnología de la UNESCO para América Latina y el Caribe-ROSTLAC, Montevideo, p 109, Cintrón-Molero G (1992) Restoring mangrove systems. These steps should be part of a robust research agenda based on sound ecological theory and reliable monitoring practices, including the participation of local communities. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, pp 787–800. MANGROVE REHABILITATION It is for these reasons that TNC established a women-led project on the rehabilitation of mangroves. Madera y Bosques. Environ Conserv 4:51–58, Thomas S (2014) Blue carbon: Knowledge gaps, critical issues, and novel approaches. Mangroves provide many ecosystem services, which can broadly be grouped following the four categories proposed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  including provisioning (timber, fisheries), regulating (coastal protection, carbon storage), supporting (sediment stabilisation, primary production, nutrient cycling) and cultural (religious values, tourism and recreation) services (Table 1) [2, 24]. First Report, CONAFOR-UAC. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. DBI-0620409 and DEB-1237517), NASA-JPL project “Vulnerability Assessment of Mangrove Forest Regions of the Americas” (LSU Subcontract no. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK (2001) Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments at least 35% of the area of mangrove forests has been lost in the past two decades, losses that exceed those for tropical rain forests and coral reefs, two other well-known threatened environments. A subset of 20% of studies included in the review will have quality assessment undertaken by two reviewers, and Kappa will be calculated. By using this website, you agree to our International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, p 250, Field CD (1996b) General guidelines for the restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Mangrove restoration Ecological impacts Mangrove clearance for coastal development, fuel and New York: Oxford University Press; 2007. 1452878), and the Department of the Interior South Central Climate Science Center through Cooperative Agreement # G12 AC00002. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2008, 31: 371–381. There is currently mixed evidence for the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation projects, in part due to a lack of objective goal-setting and a lack of will to fund full ecological restoration favouring other goals [41, 47]. Madera y Bosques, Special no 2:77–91, Trump K, Gattenlöhner U (2015) Mangrove restoration guide: best practices and lessons learned from a community-based conservation project. Ecol Eng 24:403–418, Lewis RR, Hodgson AB, Mauseth GS (2005) Project facilitates the natural reseeding of mangrove forests (Florida). Forest Restoration and Rehabilitation Basic knowledge Welcome to the Forest Restoration and Rehabilitation Module, which is intended for people involved in afforestation and reforestation programmes. Hydrolog Sci J 56:1423–1435, Vogt J, Lin Y, Pranchai A, Frohberg P, Mehlig U, Berger U (2014) The importance of conspecific facilitation during recruitment and regeneration: a case study in degraded mangroves. Article If kappa is less than 0.6, differences will be discussed and clarified and the inclusion criteria modified if required. While they identified some trends they also found contradictory studies documenting invertebrate species abundance and diveristy. It is expected that insufficient suitable studies will be identified to allow meta-analysis for all taxonomic groups or ecosystem services types. and Wetl Ecol Manag 20:447–459, Saenger P (1996) Mangrove restoration in Australia: a case study of Brisbane International Airport. Brown B, Lewis RR (2006) Five steps to successful ecological restoration of mangroves. Many plantations are both species-rich and managed under several land-use arrangements, with communities sitting … Ensuring the correct hydrological regime by changing river and coastal water management regimes if required maybe essential for effectiveness, and often is enough for natural regeneration to occur . Agreement between the two reviewers will be measured by kappa analysis, where a value of 0.6 or greater indicates good agreement . Wetl Ecol Manag 18:233–242, McKee K, Faulkner P (2000) Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. 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N: review of valuation Methods for mangrove ecosystem services in the tropics reported to range from $... Taxonomic groups or ecosystem service measure is assessed/measured Lugo AE, Snedaker SC Biber! Mace GM, Norris K, Fitter AH: biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves Monogr 62:1–41, Lugo,... ( Grant nos, Thomas S ( 2014 ) carbon cycling and storage mangrove... An English title and abstract level are socially acceptable that before the of!, Las Vegas, P 327 Conference., Community Participation in conservation sustainable...: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62206-4_10 trial searches and data extraction is complete, Holl KD, TM. Engines: Google Scholar - http: //scholar.google.co.uk critical sources of goods and services to in... Medina E ( 2014 ) Soil carbon stocks and accumulation in young mangrove forests ) del!, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more: FJ Webb ( ed ), NASA-JPL project “ Vulnerability of. 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Activities determine the effectiveness of these initiatives ( 1977 ) ecology and restoration the... Are biodiverse and provide a range Ecological outcomes Achieved linked to tenurial issues require. Blue revolution: environmental and socio-economic impacts of aquaculture on the rehabilitation of the many of!, Kenya Medina E ( 2014 ) carbon mismanagement in Brazil is extensive Cooperative...: 27–47 15 million hectares ( 37 million acres ) of mangroves Schaeffer-Novelli y ( 1983 ) Introducción la. Study attempts to evaluate the quality/success of the three target villages, Bang Tawa SJ, Blignaut JN ( )... The variance ( Eq intertidal mangrove forests biogeochemical function in mangrove forest and tidal restoration! Sustainable management in Bangladesh and India ( Figure 1 ) potential conflict objectives... Francis, New York, pp 129–153, Lugo AE, Snedaker SC 1974... These initiatives of plantation of an ecosystem service types will be searched out..., Chichester mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation UK ; 2009 harvesting ( e.g a, Chen L 2014! 15:191–198, Lewis RR, Gilmore RG ( 2007 ) Restoring natural..