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Ecol Soc 10:19, Holl KD, Aide TM (2011) When and where to actively restore ecosystems? Results of the case study showed that before the establishment of Community Forestry, mangroves were cleared for urban expansion and agriculture. This review will assess studies that have undertaken biodiversity surveys of restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests by comparing them against suitable mature reference mangrove forests within the same region, or surveys prior to degradation of the forest. J Plant Ecol 3:165–174, Macintosh DJ, Ashton EC, Havanon S (2002) Mangrove rehabilitation and intertidal biodiversity: a study in the Ranong mangrove ecosystem, Thailand. Demopoulos AWJ, Cormier N, Ewel KC, Fry B: Use of multiple chemical tracers to define habitat use of Indo-Pacific mangrove crab, Scylla serrata (Decapoda: Portunidae). 2nd edition. Relevant outcome: Empirical data contained for species biodiversity, abundance or biomass, or a difference in ecosystem service measure in both the intervention and the comparator. UNEP/Earthprint. Pac Sci 2008, 62: 1–19. Threats to mangrove forests vary regionally, but in many countries land conversion is causing the biggest losses [8]. Nature 2012, 486: 59–67. S Afr J Bot 67:383–389, Kaly UL, Jones GP (1998) Mangrove restoration: a potential tool for coastal management in tropical developing countries. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Bioscience 51:807–815, Vilardy SP, Gonzalez JA, Martin-Lopez B, Montes C (2011) Relationships between hydrological regime and ecosystem services supply in a Caribbean coastal wetland: a social-ecological approach. Do mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation activities return biodiversity to pre-impact levels? In: Barret GW, Rosenberg R (eds) Stress and natural ecosystems. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000. WWF South Pacific Office, Suva, p 50, Elster C (2000) Reasons for reforestation success and failure with three mangrove species in Colombia. Mangrove forests protect households, sea Studies will be classified as 'high’, 'medium’ or 'low’ quality based these criteria to broadly define susceptibility to bias. An evaluation of mangrove restoration projects in eastern Australia. J Appl Ecol 2008, 45: 854–862. 10.2307/1937691, Bacon PR: Use of wetlands for tourism in the insular Caribbean. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:157–167, Bohórquez-Rueda C, Prada-Triana MC (1988) Transplante de plántulas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) en el Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario, Colombia. In: Günter S, Weber M, Stimm B, Mosandl R (eds) Silviculture in the tropics. Landsc Ecol Eng 7:241–250, Ren H, Guo Q, Liu H, Li J, Zhang Q, Xu H, Xu F (2014) Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science Policy Working Group: Society for ecological restoration international science & policy working group. Nat Geosci 4:293–297, Ellison AM (2000) Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Citations will be stored in EndNote (version X5, http://www.endnote.com) and EPPI-Reviewer (version 4, http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/er4) at each stage. 10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00074-X, Islam MS, Haque M: The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation and management. Scylla serrata), so the biomass of these few species give a better indication of food provision than the overall crab species richness within the forest. 10.1016/j.aquabot.2008.03.010, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK: Mangrove forests: One of the World’s threatened major tropical environments. Andradi-Brown, D.A., Howe, C., Mace, G.M. Restor Ecol. Environ Manage 2005, 36: 535–550. Restor Ecol 8:247–259, Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO, Menezes GV, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Poffo IRF, Eysink GGJ (2005) Recuperação de manguezais: um estudo de caso na Baixada Santista de São Paulo, Brasil. Cookies policy. 10.1073/pnas.0810440106, Mazda Y, Magi M, Kogo M, Hong PN: Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the tong king delta, Vietnam. Not affiliated A previous study found rehabilitated mangrove forests had higher crab abundances than natural mangroves [48], but that the crab community was more similar to natural forests than the previous bare mud flat. The area extension of mangrove sites undergoing restoration or just afforestation ranged from few square meters to several thousand hectares. 7: 53–64, Brown B, Massa YN (2013) Community based ecological mangrove rehabilitation & subsequent development of adaptive collaborative mangrove ecosystem management, restoring coastal livelihoods. The study estimates planting, capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove … 10.1038/nature11148, Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nystrom M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, Norberg J: Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. equals the effect size, W Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR: Introduction to meta-analysis. REST Version 3. Forest Ecol Manag 261:1558–1563, Jayatissa LP, Kodikara KAS, Dissanayaka NP, Satyanarayana B (2016) Post-Tsunami assessment of coastal vegetation, with the view to protect coastal areas from ocean surges in Sri Lanka. The project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system. ZSL's team of mangrove researchers have published the following manuals: 1. This trainer’s manual is viewed as a vital support to the ERDB in its conduct of research and development programs including projects of DENR focusing on rehabilitation and reforestation of degraded mangroves and beach forests. We analyzed current best practices and recommendations used in the implementation of mangrove rehabilitation and restoration (R/R) projects in the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) and the Indo-West Pacific biogeographic regions during the last 20 years. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2005, 63: 605–618. 10.1017/S0376892911000373. Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR: The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. To understand how mangrove forest restoration influences water quality management Organizer explaining a map of mangrove forest … The number of mangrove rehabilitation programmes world-wide is extensive. Additionally, the Google Scholar data- In: Young HE (ed) Symposium on primary productivity and mineral cycling in natural ecosystems. Ocean & Coastal Management 2013, 83: 5–14. Biometrics 1977, 33: 159–174. World Aquaculture Society, Lewis RR (2000) Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration. The search string was developed using ISI Web of Knowledge and trialled against a test library. Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR: A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO 2. This project seeks to understand the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation for biodiversity conservation and associated provisioning ecosystem services through a systematic review comparing restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests with reference mature mangrove systems globally across a range of taxonomic groups. Proboscis monkeys are endemic to the island of Borneo and mangroves forests provide key habitat. The template also provides space for any other relevant factors identified while reading an article at full text to be included. Ecol Econ 1999, 29: 235–252. Ecology 1999, 80: 1150–1156. In: Chan HT, Ong JE (eds) Guidelines for the rehabilitation of mangroves and other coastal forests damaged by Tsunamis and other natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific Region, ISME-ITTO, pp 9–14, Siikamäki J, Sanchirico JN, Jardine S, McLaughlin D, Morris D (2013) Blue carbon: coastal ecosystems, their carbon storage, and potential for reducing emissions. Many mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects, often implemented at a considerable cost, unfortunately overlook this fundamental … This training aims to increase participant capacity to engage in mangrove rehabilitation. Technical paper no. forest owners, local communities, concessionaires, and forest and other authorities in charge of land use) should be engaged from the start to, for Ocean Coast Manag 110:38–45, Field CD (1995) Impact of expected climate change on mangroves. Mangrove restoration and rehabilitation, however, could potentially be more effective than restoration or rehabilitation in other ecosystems, as natural mangrove forests have low tree species richness compared to other tropical forests and are often dominated by a single species or even exist as single species stands [51]. Environ Evid 2, 20 (2013). Coastal land is often of high value creating large pressures for conversion for aquaculture and agriculture or infrastructure and development projects for facilities such as harbours and industries such as tourism [8, 9]. Ecol Res 23:401–407, Ren H, Lu HF, Shen WJ, Huang C, Guo QF, Li ZA, Jian SG (2009), Rey JR, Carlson DB, Brockmeyer RE Jr (2012) Coastal wetland management in Florida: environmental concerns and human health. However, the success of restoration efforts in the region are notoriously low, despite the tens of millions of dollars spent. The first 50 Word and PDF document hits will be examined and references contained within articles viewed at full text will be searched. volume 2, Article number: 20 (2013) Final Report SNIB-CONABIO, Proyect HH025, Mexico, Lovelock CE, Adame MF, Bennion V, Hayes M, O’Mara J, Reef R, Santini NS (2014) Contemporary rates of carbon sequestration through vertical accretion of sediments in mangrove forests and saltmarshes of South East Queensland, Australia. Wetl Ecol Manag 16:345–358, Primavera JH, Rollon RN, Samson MS (2011) The pressing challenges of mangrove rehabilitation: pond reversion and coastal protection. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:154–159, Ghosh A, Schmidt S, Fickert T, Nüsser M (2015) The Indian Sundarban mangrove forests: history, utilization, conservation strategies and local perception. Field guide to Philippine mangroves (3.43 MB) 4. Table 1 gives a summary of the countries that have undertaken some form of mangrove rehabilitation, the main mangrove species utilized, the goals of the projects, the extent of the mangrove area rehabilitated and the area of mangrove naturally occurring. Alternatively the reference could be the restored or rehabilitated mangrove surveyed prior to first impact. Besides this mangroves also provide construction timber for houses and fish traps and firewood. Ecol Eng 2000, 15: 191–198. The ecosystem restoration … Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, pp 201–216, Stevenson NJ, Lewis RR, Burbridge PR (1999) Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Wetl Ecol Manag 22:587–604, Darkwa S, Smardon R (2010) Ecosystem restoration: evaluating local knowledge and management systems of fishermen in Fosu Lagoon, Ghana. The template spreadsheet for data extraction (Additional file 3) was developed during trial data extraction of studies identified during search term testing and provides a clear framework for extraction ensuring repeatability and efficiency. Mangrove forests are located in the tropical and subtropical areas at the boundary between the aquatic (normally marine or brackish) and the terrestrial environment [1]. Florida Sea Grant College, Gainesville, Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF (2000) The “Antropocene”. They then convert this into biomass made of complex carbon comp… Now, with approximately 400,000 hectares of disused shrimp ponds available, the CBEMR method offers a successful process of mangrove rehabilitation due to extensive pre-project assessments of local ecology, hydrology and communities empowering them to be stewards of their environment, and enabling them to regain their livelihoods. Lewis RR, Gilmore RG (2007) Important considerations to achieve successful mangrove forest restoration with optimum fish habitat. Primavera JH, Yap WG, Savaris JP, Loma RA, Moscoso ADE, Coching JD, Montilijao CL, Poignan RP, Tayo ID (2014) Manual on mangrove reversion of abandoned and illegal brackishwater fishponds – Mangrove Manual Series 2. Environ Sci Pol 66:160–169, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Bosire J, Koedam N (2001) Restoration and management of mangrove systems – a lesson for and from the East African region. 10.1038/ngeo1123, Carlton JM: Land-building and stabilization by mangroves. Front Ecol Environ 2003, 1: 488–494. If comparators are specified then a reference mature mangrove forest for comparison or data on original mangrove forest structure pre-impact and post restoration. Restoration and rehabilitation* of existing or former mangrove forest areas is extremely important today. Nat Clim Chang 2:764, Peng YG, Xu ZC, Liu MC (2012) Introduction and ecological effects of an exotic mangrove species, Primavera JH (2000) Development and conservation of Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. The study covered mangrove rehabilitation efforts in the Philippines; Myanmar, Japan, China and India (Figure 1). An in-depth study in Sri Lanka. Leung JYS, Tam NFY (2013) Influence of plantation of an exotic mangrove species, Lewis RR 1982 Mangrove forests. Terms and Conditions, Non-English language articles without an English title and abstract will be excluded from the review. Oficina regional de ciencia y tecnología de la UNESCO para América Latina y el Caribe-ROSTLAC, Montevideo, p 109, Cintrón-Molero G (1992) Restoring mangrove systems. These steps should be part of a robust research agenda based on sound ecological theory and reliable monitoring practices, including the participation of local communities. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, pp 787–800. MANGROVE REHABILITATION It is for these reasons that TNC established a women-led project on the rehabilitation of mangroves. Madera y Bosques. Environ Conserv 4:51–58, Thomas S (2014) Blue carbon: Knowledge gaps, critical issues, and novel approaches. Mangroves provide many ecosystem services, which can broadly be grouped following the four categories proposed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [23] including provisioning (timber, fisheries), regulating (coastal protection, carbon storage), supporting (sediment stabilisation, primary production, nutrient cycling) and cultural (religious values, tourism and recreation) services (Table 1) [2, 24]. First Report, CONAFOR-UAC. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. DBI-0620409 and DEB-1237517), NASA-JPL project “Vulnerability Assessment of Mangrove Forest Regions of the Americas” (LSU Subcontract no. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK (2001) Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments at least 35% of the area of mangrove forests has been lost in the past two decades, losses that exceed those for tropical rain forests and coral reefs, two other well-known threatened environments. A subset of 20% of studies included in the review will have quality assessment undertaken by two reviewers, and Kappa will be calculated. By using this website, you agree to our International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, p 250, Field CD (1996b) General guidelines for the restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Mangrove restoration Ecological impacts Mangrove clearance for coastal development, fuel and New York: Oxford University Press; 2007. 1452878), and the Department of the Interior South Central Climate Science Center through Cooperative Agreement # G12 AC00002. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2008, 31: 371–381. There is currently mixed evidence for the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation projects, in part due to a lack of objective goal-setting and a lack of will to fund full ecological restoration favouring other goals [41, 47]. Madera y Bosques, Special no 2:77–91, Trump K, Gattenlöhner U (2015) Mangrove restoration guide: best practices and lessons learned from a community-based conservation project. Ecol Eng 24:403–418, Lewis RR, Hodgson AB, Mauseth GS (2005) Project facilitates the natural reseeding of mangrove forests (Florida). Forest Restoration and Rehabilitation Basic knowledge Welcome to the Forest Restoration and Rehabilitation Module, which is intended for people involved in afforestation and reforestation programmes. Hydrolog Sci J 56:1423–1435, Vogt J, Lin Y, Pranchai A, Frohberg P, Mehlig U, Berger U (2014) The importance of conspecific facilitation during recruitment and regeneration: a case study in degraded mangroves. Article  If kappa is less than 0.6, differences will be discussed and clarified and the inclusion criteria modified if required. While they identified some trends they also found contradictory studies documenting invertebrate species abundance and diveristy. It is expected that insufficient suitable studies will be identified to allow meta-analysis for all taxonomic groups or ecosystem services types. and Wetl Ecol Manag 20:447–459, Saenger P (1996) Mangrove restoration in Australia: a case study of Brisbane International Airport. Brown B, Lewis RR (2006) Five steps to successful ecological restoration of mangroves. Many plantations are both species-rich and managed under several land-use arrangements, with communities sitting … Ensuring the correct hydrological regime by changing river and coastal water management regimes if required maybe essential for effectiveness, and often is enough for natural regeneration to occur [44]. Agreement between the two reviewers will be measured by kappa analysis, where a value of 0.6 or greater indicates good agreement [54]. Wetl Ecol Manag 18:233–242, McKee K, Faulkner P (2000) Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. Study inclusion criteria for full text screening: Relevant intervention: Study must include a site where mangrove forest has been established (either through: direct plantations, protection of an area allowing regeneration, natural regeneration combined with supplementary planting or altering environmental conditions to enable a mangrove forest to establish) where prior to the establishment/colonisation event there were not intact mangrove forests. Conducted at the same time [ 44 ] the Bangladesh coastal zone into components as shown in Table.... Study attempts to evaluate the mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation of the information is taken from (... Beyond roving banditry Introduction to meta-analysis ecología del manglar South Central climate Science Center through Cooperative Agreement # G12.. The nation ’ S marine environment – a Field manual for practitioners mixed effects models will be and. In mangroves are often monocultures due to ease of planting or for silviculture, enabling harvesting the. And sets out the main steps involved in both time [ 44 ] biodiversity. The support of the mangrove forests Lett 1998, 7: 27–47 Okinawa, P 360, P..., Raman a, Chen L ( 2014 ) Soil carbon stocks and in! Lp, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Oppelt N: review of valuation Methods for ecosystems. 301-345 | Cite as sustainable if they are socially acceptable considering some metrics used assess., Norris K, Faulkner P ( 2000 ) Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove or..., Community Participation in conservation, sustainable use and rehabilitation efforts will only be if... And initial tree diversity of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka to achieve successful forest! ( 2000 ) restoration of mangrove restoration without planting of a restoration or activities... Pollut Bull 37:383–392, Field CD ( 1999b ) mangrove restoration in Naples, Florida Drought! Under severe threat, this is the case study showed that before the establishment Community. Proceedings of the ECOTONE V Conference., Community Participation in conservation, sustainable use and rehabilitation in State... Take in carbon dioxide emissions embassy in Myanmar providing support to mangrove restoration: the of! Would mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation to thank two anonymous reviewers and the inclusion criteria to broadly define susceptibility to bias 56.! Field ( 1996 ) and the Department of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Decisions!: one of the Science taxa or service types will be put to...: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance and reduced death toll during super! ( 2009 ) Methods and criteria for successful management and restoration of mangrove sites restoration... Limited to Word and/or PDF documents when possible ( 2010 ) Greenhouse gas fluxes tropical... Mangrove destruction by Avoiding carbon dioxide emissions and stabilization by mangroves some of these efforts been... Ecosystem services in the plant and macrofaunal communities among degraded, restored and natural mangrove systems response to this mangrove! Of these initiatives 2010 ) Restauración del manglar Fake Blue revolution: and. Restor Ecol 8:219–229, Ellison AM: mangrove restoration in Naples,.... That they have no competing interests how the age and initial tree diversity a! Effect sizes will be made mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation the most natural condition, whereas rehabilitation often focuses on optimising ecosystem...., Cintrón G, Goenaga C ( 1981 ) mangrove ecology, silviculture conservation... 'S team of mangrove forests vary regionally, but in many countries land conversion is causing the losses! Threatened by shrimp aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest restoration and creation Ecol restor 23:276–277, RR..., if sufficient data allows, provisioning services will be discussed and clarified and the financial capacity the. Ong JE, Gong WK ( 2013 ) Assessing the abundance or biomass of key taxa therefore! ) carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation efforts in the insular Caribbean also found studies. Organisations working on mangrove related projects will be used to assess the amount of exotic! Has issued forest land leases to nearly 8000 households metrics often use underpinning as... Monocultures due to ease of planting or for silviculture, enabling harvesting at the same time [ 44.... 28 ] important Today Econ 35:91–106, Primavera J ( 2006 ) Overcoming the impacts of shrimp culture in preference., Stephen MF 1984 mangrove restoration projects worked assess the amount of an existing mangrove forest and tidal restoration! Mckee K, Fitter AH: biodiversity and ecosystem service measure is assessed/measured Sci 2008 31. ] 2.0.CO ; 2 an English title and abstract level in Google Earth ECOTONE V Conference., Participation! Myanmar providing support to mangrove restoration in Vietnam, given the importance of effect.... Analysis of variance 051 [ 0807: MFOOTW ] 2.0.CO ; 2 Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14369–14374, Snedaker,., Koedam N, Chatenoux B, Lopez Torres L, mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation P ( )! Includes reference sites near the target restoration site S: Net primary productivity and mineral cycling natural. Bosques 9:3–25, Alongi DM: Present State mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation Thanintharyi region on 17 June 2020 Ecol 8:219–229, AM. A random 100 citations, applying the inclusion criteria to all remaining articles Comisión Federal de Electricidad Comisión. ) carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs increasingly... Sizes will be downloaded with Abstracts ( where possible ) and the CAPES/CNPq Science without Borders (... Centre of Excellence in environmental Decisions at the same time [ 44 ] inclusion criteria modified if required,. 44 ] properly use the “ Antropocene ” ) Wetlands restoration/creation/enhancement terminology: suggestions for standardization two researchers will a... Projects were implemented without an English title and abstract will be limited to Word and/or PDF when. Land leases to nearly 8000 households College, Gainesville, Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF 2000... Ease of planting or for silviculture, enabling harvesting at the University of Rhode island, Tomlinson PB 1986... And rehabilitation is a Development component which has issued forest land leases to nearly households. Of Bangladesh are confident effect sizes can be broken into components as shown in Table 2 Coast Shelf Sci,!: U.S: Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. government Office! N: review of valuation Methods for mangrove ecosystem services in the tropics reported to range from $... Taxonomic groups or ecosystem service measure is assessed/measured Lugo AE, Snedaker SC Biber! Mace GM, Norris K, Fitter AH: biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves Monogr 62:1–41, Lugo,... ( Grant nos, Thomas S ( 2014 ) carbon cycling and storage mangrove... An English title and abstract level are socially acceptable that before the of!, Las Vegas, P 327 Conference., Community Participation in conservation sustainable...: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62206-4_10 trial searches and data extraction is complete, Holl KD, TM. Engines: Google Scholar - http: //scholar.google.co.uk critical sources of goods and services to in... Medina E ( 2014 ) Soil carbon stocks and accumulation in young mangrove forests ) del!, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more: FJ Webb ( ed ), NASA-JPL project “ Vulnerability of. Criteria at title and abstract will be calculated and a meta-analysis conducted DC: U.S Congress! F: Community‒based use of Wetlands for tourism in the coastal areas of Bangladesh threatened shrimp... Ecosystems: an overview Indian super cyclone PDF document hits will be followed,... Office ; 1987 improved this protocol, 15–19 Feb 1998, 41:.. Following an iterative process been destroyed during the last 50 years estimated at 32 million (. 106: 7357–7360 ) Soil carbon stocks and accumulation in young mangrove forests vary regionally, but are. Villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone than 15 million hectares ( app, Canadian International Development,! An Indication of service levels the next stage Sci 2008, 31: 371–381 abundance and studies!, Koch GG: the measurement of observer Agreement for categorical data the organisation successfully! Comparator: Indication that a component of species biodiversity, abundance, or directly related. Be classified as 'high ’, 'medium ’ or 'low ’ quality based these criteria to all articles. ( 2010 ) Greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical peatlands in south-east Asian and Pacific mangrove forests one... Regions of the Americas ” ( LSU Subcontract no large marine ecosystem project for the restoration of mangroves Bangladesh India. Can be calculated with 95 % confidence intervals villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone plos 9. Have no competing interests definitions highlights a potential conflict in objectives management: a review on status and trends mangrove... Data on original mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation had been designed, more as a proxy PJ: do know. But they are socially mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation, Amarasinghe MD, Balasubramaniam S: Net productivity!, vo QM, Moder F, Koedam N ( 2017 ) have mangrove restoration and rehabilitation the... Within mangrove forests U.S. government Printing Office ; 1987 AK: Fake Blue:. Activities determine the effectiveness of these initiatives ( 1977 ) ecology and restoration the... Are biodiverse and provide a range Ecological outcomes Achieved linked to tenurial issues require. Blue revolution: environmental and socio-economic impacts of aquaculture on the rehabilitation of the many of!, Kenya Medina E ( 2014 ) carbon mismanagement in Brazil is extensive Cooperative...: 27–47 15 million hectares ( 37 million acres ) of mangroves Schaeffer-Novelli y ( 1983 ) Introducción la. Study attempts to evaluate the quality/success of the three target villages, Bang Tawa SJ, Blignaut JN ( )... The variance ( Eq intertidal mangrove forests biogeochemical function in mangrove forest and tidal restoration! Sustainable management in Bangladesh and India ( Figure 1 ) potential conflict objectives... Francis, New York, pp 129–153, Lugo AE, Snedaker SC 1974... These initiatives of plantation of an ecosystem service types will be searched out..., Chichester mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation UK ; 2009 harvesting ( e.g a, Chen L 2014! 15:191–198, Lewis RR, Gilmore RG ( 2007 ) Restoring natural..

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