At one-and-a-half months of age, they are agile enough to flee from danger. , Genomic studies suggest modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population that existed 20,000 years ago. Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles, paved roads and railways. , The wolf is a frequent charge in English heraldry. Subspecies Canis lupus familiaris-Canis is the Latin word for dog.  Historic methods included killing of spring-born litters in their dens, coursing with dogs (usually combinations of sighthounds, Bloodhounds and Fox Terriers), poisoning with strychnine, and trapping. A human can detect the smell of a forest fire over the same distance from downwind. While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris, and the wolf as Canis lupus.  The name "gray wolf" refers to the grayish colour of the species. Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period. Compared with modern wolves, some Pleistocene wolves showed an increase in tooth breakage similar to that seen in the extinct dire wolf. , Wolves advertise their territories to other packs through howling and scent marking.  In Chinese astronomy, the wolf represents Sirius as the "blue beast" and the star itself is called the "heavenly wolf". Wolverines escape from wolves in caves or up trees.  In Hindu mythology, Krishna, to convince the people of Vraja to migrate to Vṛndāvana, creates hundreds of wolves from his hairs, which frighten the inhabitants of Vraja into making the journey. , In the distant past, there has been gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. In the New Testament, Jesus is said to have used wolves as illustrations of the dangers his followers, whom he represents as sheep, would face should they follow him. Wolves usually have some hairs that are white, brown, gray and black. Wolves are excellent learners that match or outperform domestic dogs. Though they fed from his kills, he never allowed them to approach him.  Cortisol levels in wolves rise significantly when a pack member dies, indicating the presence of stress. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Although the fear of wolves exists in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its cauda recurvata—its upturning tail—which is not found in any other canid. This is in contrast to young coyotes and foxes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behaviour. This has fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range as a result of legal protection, changes in land use, and rural human population shifts to cities.  These marks are generally left every 240 m (260 yd) throughout the territory on regular travelways and junctions. , The gestation period lasts 62–75 days with pups usually being born in the spring months or early summer in very cold places such as on the tundra. In North America, incidents of wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills. Wolves in northern climates can rest comfortably in open areas at −40 °C (−40 °F) by placing their muzzles between the rear legs and covering their faces with their tail.  The skull is 230–280 mm (9–11 in) in length and 130–150 mm (5–6 in) in width. Canis: pictures (88) Canis: specimens (67) Canis: sounds (4) Species Canis lupus gray wolf. This implies the original morphologically diverse wolf populations were out-competed and replaced by more modern wolves. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them, but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas. Symptoms often include constipation, toxic and allergic reactions, irritation of the intestinal mucosa, and malnutrition.  Research into the inheritance of white colour from dogs into wolves has yet to be undertaken.  For the Pawnee, Sirius is the "wolf star" and its disappearance and reappearance signified the wolf moving to and from the spirit world. , The wolf is the largest member of the Canidae family, and is further distinguished from coyotes and jackals by a broader snout, shorter ears, a shorter torso and a longer tail. Short, elastic and closely adjacent hairs are present on the limbs from the elbows down to the calcaneal tendons.  In Zoroastrianism, the wolf has been demonized as the creation of Ahriman.  Wolves in northern Minnesota prey on northern pike in freshwater streams. , During the 19th century, wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River, but decreased considerably in number between 1964 and 1980, largely due to persecution by farmers. In winter, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely. Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions actively seeking out American black bears in their dens and killing them without eating them. The species is listed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in its Appendix II, indicating that it is not threatened with extinction.  The dingo, Basenji, Tibetan Mastiff and Chinese indigenous breeds are basal members of the domestic dog clade. , Wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever, anorexia, vomiting, anemia, hematuria, icterus, and death. Disclaimer: Older wolves generally have more white hairs on the tip of the tail, along the nose, and on the forehead. , In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under C. lupus 36 wild subspecies, and proposed two additional subspecies: familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and dingo (Meyer, 1793).  In another story, the wolf tricks and eats some rats by pretending to be lame but is foiled by the chief rat. In the rare cases where other wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably an immature animal of one to three years old, and unlikely to compete for breeding rights with the mated pair. The sides of the body, tail, and outer limbs are a pale dirty ochreous colour, while the inner sides of the limbs, belly, and groin are white. Toxocara canis, a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in the uterus, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea.  The wolf was held in high esteem by the Dacians, who viewed it as the lord of all animals and as the only effective defender against evil. , The wolf is a social animal. Their numbers range from 1,500 in Georgia, to 20,000 in Kazakhstan and up to 45,000 in Russia. Global wolf range based on the IUCN (2018). They continued to survive in parts of Finland, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe. Should one of the pair die, another mate is found quickly.  Prey in North America continue to occupy suitable habitats with low human density, the wolves eating livestock and garbage only in dire circumstances.  In Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States, the Mexican and U.S. governments collaborated from 1977 to 1980 in capturing all Mexican wolves remaining in the wild to prevent their extinction and established captive breeding programs for reintroduction. Wozencraft included hallstromi—the New Guinea singing dog—as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. , Predatory attacks may be preceded by a long period of habituation, in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.  Prey density tends to be much higher on the territory's periphery. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris, and the wolf as Canis lupus. The warmth of the foot pads is regulated independently from the rest of the body and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow. Canis lupus: information (1) Canis lupus: pictures (30) Canis lupus: specimens (35) Related Taxa. , The wolf usually travels at a loping pace, placing one of its paws directly in front of the other. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have killed two wolf pups in Canada. , Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host. Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transports them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace.  In Alaska, 7,000–11,000 wolves are found on 85% of the state's 1,517,733 km2 (586,000 sq mi). In Eurasia, a large part of the diet of some wolf populations consists of livestock, while such incidents are rare in North America, where healthy populations of wild prey have been largely restored. The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis lupus italicus; however, NCBI/Genbank publishes research papers under that name. Results indicate that five related haplotypes formed a clade that is basal to all other wolves.
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